Library of Resources

A surgeon using a laptop

20th March 2019 – this page is currently being updated – more recent resources will appear soon

The IDEAL library is intended to be helpful for researchers in surgery who are planning, conducting or reporting their work. We have not attempted to be exhaustive but list a selection of useful IDEAL articles and presentations.

IDEAL Publications

2019: Hirst A, Philippou Y, Blazeby J, Campbell B, Campbell M, Feinberg J, Rovers M, Blencowe N, Pennell C, Quinn T, Rogers W, Cook J, Kolias AG, Agha R, Dahm P, Sedrakyan A, McCulloch P. No Surgical Innovation Without Evaluation: Evolution and Further Development of the IDEAL Framework and Recommendations. Ann Surg.2019 Feb;269(2):211-220. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002794. PubMed PMID:29697448.

Tradewell MB, Albersheim J, Dahm P. Use of the IDEAL framework in the urological literature: where are we in 2018? BJU Int. 2019 Jan 17. doi:10.1111/bju.14676. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30653798.

McCulloch P, Feinberg J; IDEAL Collaboration. Beyond IDEAL: the importance of surgical innovation metrics – Authors’ reply. Lancet. 2019 Jan 26;393(10169):316. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33056-3. PubMed PMID: 30696568.

2018: Hirst A, McCulloch P. Evolution of the surgical technique of minimally invasive Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy: description according to the IDEAL framework-but which IDEAL stage? Dis Esophagus. 2018 Dec 17. doi:10.1093/dote/doy122. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 30561590.

Khachane A, Philippou Y, Hirst A, McCulloch P. Appraising the uptake and use of the IDEAL Framework and Recommendations: A review of the literature. Int J Surg. 2018 Sep;57:84-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.07.008. Epub 2018 Aug 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 30098412.

McCulloch P, Feinberg J, Philippou Y, Kolias A, Kehoe S, Lancaster G, Donovan J, Petrinic T, Agha R, Pennell C. Progress in clinical research in surgery and IDEAL. Lancet. 2018 Jul 7;392(10141):88-94. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30102-8. Epub 2018 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 29361334.

Agha, Riaz & Hirst, Allison & Khachane, Asha & McCulloch, Peter. (2018). A Protocol for the Development of Reporting Guidelines for IDEAL Stage Studies. International Journal of Surgery Protocols. 9. 10.1016/j.isjp.2018.04.001

Beard D, Hamilton D, Davies L, Cook J, Hirst A, McCulloch P, Paez A. Evidence-Based Evaluation of Practice and Innovation in Physical Therapy Using the IDEAL-Physio Framework. Phys Ther. 2018 Feb 1;98(2):108-121. doi:10.1093/ptj/pzx103. PubMed PMID: 29077915.

Chen J, Li Y, Wang Z, McCulloch P, Hu L, Chen W, Liu G, Li J, Lang J; Committee of the Clinical Trial of HIFU versus Surgical Treatment for Fibroids. Evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for uterine fibroids: an IDEAL prospective exploration study. BJOG. 2018 Feb;125(3):354-364. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.14689. Epub 2017 Jun 5. PubMed PMID: 28421665.

2017: Sood A, Menon M, Hirst A, McCulloch P, Ghani KR. Hey, I Just Did a Better Operation! Toward an IDEAL Innovation Model. Ann Surg. 2017 Jul;266(1):e9. doi 10.1097/SLA.0000000000001273. PubMed PMID: 28591016.

Chapman SJ, Shelton B, Maruthappu M, Singh P, McCulloch P, Bhangu A. Cross-sectional observational study of the availability of evidence supporting novel implantable devices used in gastrointestinal surgery. Br J Surg. 2017 May;104(6):734-741. doi: 10.1002/bjs.10485. Epub 2017 Feb 20. PubMed PMID:

2016:  Sedrakyan A, Campbell B, Merino JG, Kuntz R, Hirst A, McCulloch P. IDEAL-D: a rational framework for evaluating and regulating the use of medical devices. BMJ. 2016 Jun 9;353:i2372. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i2372. PubMed PMID: 27283585.

Pennell CP, Hirst AD, Campbell WB, Sood A, Agha RA, Barkun JS, McCulloch P. Practical guide to the Idea, Development and Exploration stages of the IDEAL Framework and Recommendations. Br J Surg. 2016 Apr;103(5):607-15. doi: 10.1002/bjs.10115. Epub 2016 Feb 10. PubMed PMID: 26865013.

Pennell CP, Hirst A, Sedrakyan A, McCulloch PG. Adapting the IDEAL Framework and Recommendations for medical device evaluation: A modified Delphi survey. Int J Surg. 2016 Apr;28:141-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.01.082. Epub 2016 Feb 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 26876957.

Kolias AG, Hutchinson PJ, Morton DG, Blazeby JM, McCulloch P. Letter to the Editor: Methodological advances in randomized trials. J Neurosurg. 2016 Mar 11:1-3. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26967773.

Howick J, Cohen BA, McCulloch P, Thompson M, Skinner SA. Foundations for evidence-based intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 Jan;127(1):81-90. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.05.033. Epub 2015 Jul 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 26268581.

Sood A, McCulloch P, Dahm P, Ahlawat R, Jeong W, Bhandari M, Menon M. Ontogeny of a surgical technique: Robotic kidney transplantation with regional hypothermia. Int J Surg. 2016 Jan;25:158-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.12.061. Epub 2015 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 26718609.

2015: Diez del Val I, Loureiro C, McCulloch P. The IDEAL prospective development study format for reporting surgical innovations. An illustrative case study of robotic oesophagectomy. Int J Surg. 2015 Jul;19:104-11. doi: 0.1016/j.ijsu.2015.04.035. Epub 2015 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 25896542.

Sood A, Menon M, Hirst A, McCulloch P, Ghani KR. Hey, I Just Did a Better Operation! Toward an Ideal Innovation Model. Ann Surg. 2015 Jun 15. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26079919.

2014: Winters ZE, Griffin C, Horne R, Bidad N, McCulloch P. Barriers to accrue to clinical trials and possible solutions. Br J Cancer. 2014 Aug 12;111(4):637-9. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.318. Epub 2014 Jun 24. PubMed PMID: 24960407; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4134489.

Dahm P, Sedrakyan A, McCulloch P. Application of the IDEAL framework to robotic urologic surgery. Eur Urol. 2014 May;65(5):849-51. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.11.003. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 24252883.

Hoffmann TC, Glasziou PP, Boutron I, Milne R, Perera R, Moher D, Altman DG, Barbour V, Macdonald H, Johnston M, Lamb SE, Dixon-Woods M, McCulloch P, Wyatt JC, Chan AW, Michie S. Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. BMJ. 2014  Mar 7;348:g1687. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g1687. PubMed PMID: 24609605.

2013: Paul S, McCulloch P, Sedrakyan A. Robotic surgery: revisiting “no innovation without evaluation”. BMJ. 2013 Mar 11;346:f1573. doi: 10.1136/bmj.f1573. PubMed PMID: 23479593. 

Hirst A, Agha RA, Rosin D, McCulloch P. How can we improve surgical research and innovation?: the IDEAL framework for action. Int J Surg. 2013;11(10):1038-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.09.016. Epub 2013 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 24113195.

McCulloch P, Cook JA, Altman DG, Heneghan C, Diener MK; IDEAL Group. IDEAL framework for surgical innovation 1: the idea and development stages. BMJ. 2013 Jun 18;346:f3012.

Ergina PL, Barkun JS, McCulloch P, Cook JA, Altman DG; IDEAL Group. IDEAL framework for surgical innovation 2: observational studies in the exploration and assessment stages. BMJ. 2013 Jun 18;346:f3011.

Cook JA, McCulloch P, Blazeby JM, Beard DJ, Marinac-Dabic D, Sedrakyan A; IDEAL Group. IDEAL framework for surgical innovation 3: randomised controlled trials in the assessment stage and evaluations in the long term study stage. BMJ. 2013 Jun 18;346:f2820.

2012:  McCulloch P. The EU’s system for regulating medical devices. BMJ. 2012 Oct 24;345:e7126. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e7126. PubMed PMID: 23097545.

2011:  McCulloch P.  The IDEAL recommendations and urological innovation.  World J Urol 2011 Jun;29(3):331-6. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Blazeby JM, Blencowe NS, Titcomb DR, Metcalfe C, Hollowood AD, Barham CP. Demonstration of the IDEAL recommendations for evaluating and reporting surgical innovation in minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 2011 Apr;98(4):544-51. doi: 10.1002/bjs.7387. Epub 2011 Jan 18.

2009: McCulloch P, Altman DG, Campbell WB, Flum DR, Glasziou P, Marshall JC, Nicholl J, for the Balliol Collaboration.  No surgical innovation without evaluation: the IDEAL recommendations.  Lancet 2009; Sep 26; 374 (9695): 1105-12.

Ergina PL, Cook JA, Blazeby JM, Boutron I, Clavien PA, Reeves BC, Seiler CM; Balliol Collaboration, Altman DG, Aronson JK, Barkun JS, Campbell WB, Cook JA, Feldman LS, Flum DR, Glasziou P, Maddern GJ, Marshall JC, McCulloch P, Nicholl J, Strasberg SM, Meakins JL, Ashby D, Black N, Bunker J, Burton M, Campbell M, Chalkidou K, Chalmers I, de Leval M, Deeks J, Grant A, Gray M, Greenhalgh R, Jenicek M, Kehoe S, Lilford R, Littlejohns P, Loke Y, Madhock R, McPherson K, Rothwell P, Summerskill B, Taggart D, Tekkis P, Thompson M, Treasure T, Trohler U, Vandenbroucke J. Challenges in evaluating surgical innovation. Lancet. 2009 Sep 26;374(9695):1097-104.

Barkun JS, Aronson JK, Feldman LS, Maddern GJ, Strasberg SM; Balliol Collaboration, Altman DG, Barkun JS, Blazeby JM, Boutron IC, Campbell WB, Clavien PA, Cook JA, Ergina PL, Flum DR, Glasziou P, Marshall JC, McCulloch P, Nicholl J, Reeves BC, Seiler CM, Meakins JL, Ashby D, Black N, Bunker J, Burton M, Campbell M, Chalkidou K, Chalmers I, de Leval M, Deeks J, Grant A, Gray M, Greenhalgh R, Jenicek M, Kehoe S, Lilford R, Littlejohns P, Loke Y, Madhock R, McPherson K, Rothwell P, Summerskill B, Taggart D, Tekkis P, Thompson M, Treasure T, Trohler U, Vandenbroucke J. Evaluation and stages of surgical innovations. Lancet. 2009 Sep 26;374(9695):1089-96.

Related groups

UK surgical trainee collaboratives

evidence and implementation

SCIENCE and research history

Research prioritisation

Regulatory agencies

Research reporting guidelines quality

Finding the evidence

Outcomes reporting

Journals supporting IDEAL

Funding agencies

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